The term pest is a collective designation for an animal species that causes harm to humans and culture as a vector of infection, a destroyer of biomass, or a competitor for food. The term is thus dependent on society's values.
The emergence of pests goes hand in hand with the development of crops. In particular, monocultures promote the development of pest species. Climatic changes or extremes (heat, drought) often favor pests.
In relation to nature, pests are not usually referred to unless it is a matter of human-induced damage to a natural region by neobiota.